Protein Engineering

Genebeyond® protein engineering services include:

  • Protein (fusion protein) design
  • Plasmid and expression vector design
  • Multiple protein expression platforms (E. coli, yeast, baculovirus/insect cells, mammalian cells, cell-free protein synthesis)
  • Protein and protein complex expression and co-expression
  • Animal cell culture and fermentation process development
  • Protein purification process development and scale-up
  • Protein analysis and functional characterization
  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) and bispecific antibody (bsAb) design and production
  • Unnatural amino acid-containing protein design and production
  • Protein conjugation

Genebeyond® provides multiple proprietary protein expression platforms to meet various demands of different unique protein. Multiple E. coli expression systems can obtain the protein in 1-2 weeks at low cost and high yield. Our yeast expression system can provide high-yield bulk eukaryotic proteins with low cost culture condition. Our mammalian cell expression systems (CHO, HEK293, Hybridoma) offer active proteins with high-quality, especially requiring posttranslational modifications for the full or better functions such as IgG, GPCRs, cell/nuclear receptors, transcription factor, etc. Flexible options of transient expression and stable expression technology are provided for different projects or different research phases. Genebeyond also provides baculovirus/insect cell expression platform.

Genebeyond also offers state-of-the-art protein purification technology including affinity chromatography (AC), IMAC, ion exchange (IEX), gel filtration (SEC), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), and combination, process integration, optimization and scale-up.

1. Recombinant protein expression

Gene codon optimization
Plasmid design and construction
E. coli
Baculovirus/ Insect cells
Mammalian cells (transient or stable expression)
Transient transfection and expression
Stable single cell clone and protein production
Cell-free protein production
Fusion protein
Difficult protein expression

2. Biopharmaceutical process development

Single cell line cloning
Fed-batch cell culture process optimization
Protein and antibody purification (AC, IEX, SEC, HIC, HPLC)
Upstream and downstream process integration and scale up

Comparison of protein expression systems
Important Factors Characteristics E. coli Yeast Insect cells Mammalian cells Cell-Free (CFPS)
Functionality Protein Folding Refolding Usually Required Refolding May Be Required Proper Folding Proper Folding Tunable
N-linked Glycosylation None High Mannose Simple, w/o Sialic Acid Complex None
O-linked Glycosylation No Yes Yes Yes None
Phosphorylation No Yes Yes Yes None
Acetylation No Yes Yes Yes None
Acylation No Yes Yes Yes None
gamma-Carboxylation No No No Yes None
Solubility Extracellular Expression Inclusion body or soluble/secreted Soluble/secreted Soluble/secreted Soluble/Secreted In vitro
Success Rate (%) (soluble or functional) 40-60 50-70 50-70 80-95 Tunable
Yield Expression Level High Low – High Low – High Low – Moderate High
Yield (mg/L ) 0-1000 0-20,000 (22g/L) 10-500 0.1-10,000 0- 2,000
Cost Medium Cost Low Low High High Low
Project Cost Low Low Middle High High
Speed Cell Growth Rapid (40Min) Rapid (120 Min) Slow (18-24 H) Slow (24 H) Rapid
Complexity Growth Medium Minimum Minimum Complex Complex None


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